Presbyters Uniwersytet Warszawski
ER 810
Signatures of the presbyter and two "fathers" (abbates), representatives of the absent bishops at the Tenth Council of Toledo (both in Iberian Peninsula) in AD 656.
The signatures of the twenty bishops present at the council. Then follow the representatives of the absent bishops:
[21] Argefredus abba Egilani episcopi ecclesiae Oxomensis.
[22] Martinus abba Valdefredi episcopi ecclesiae Mentesanae.
[23] Egila presbyter Giberii episcopi ecclesiae Bigastrensis.
Here follow the two signatures of the deacons, Agricius and Daniel.
(eds. Martínez Díez, Rodríguez 1992: 536)
The signatures of the twenty bishops present at the council. Then follows the representatives of the absent bishops, firstly two abbots Argefredus and Martinus.
[21] Argefredus, abba of Egila, bishop of the Church of Oxoma.
[22] Martin, abba of Valdefredus, bishop of the Church of Mentesa.
[23] Egila, presbyter of Giberius, bishop of the Church of Bigastro.
Here follow the two signatures of the deacons, Agricius and Daniel.
(trans. M. Szada)


I suppose that the abbots in the section of the list following the signatures of the bishops are the superiors of the monastery (for comparison see signatures of the Eleventh Council of Toledo in AD 675 AD in which present abbots are identified by their monastery), but abbates in the section of signatures of deputies of absent bishops are members of the diocesan clergy (see Canon 11 of the Council of Mérida in AD 666 [821] that puts them between presbyters and deacons). We do not know whether they had a presbyterial ordination, but see Canon 3 of the Eleventh Council of Toledo in AD 675 [857] that mentions abbates celebrating Divine Office and mass. It is possible that abbas was a title of a cleric in charge of a basilica (cf. the study of "abbots of the basilicas" in 6th-century Gaul by Pietri 1983). Bishko 1941 acknowledges the difference between abbots present at the council in their own right and those who are representatives of bishops. He assumes, however, that both these groups belonged to the monastic milieu; he proposes that bishops from distant dioceses were asking the abbots of monasteries from Toledo and its close proximity to represent them at the council, but there is no decisive argument backing his claim. It is, however, accepted by Orlandis 1986. For other cases of abbates representing absent bishops see [541], [1027], [1026], [1380].

Place of event:

  • Iberian Peninsula
  • Toledo
  • Bigastro
  • Osuna
  • Mentesa

About the source:

Title: Tenth Council of Toledo, Concilium Toletanum decimum a. 656, Concilium X Toletanum, Concilium Toletanum X, Concilium X Toletanum, Concilium Toletanum X
Origin: Toledo (Iberian Peninsula)
Denomination: Catholic/Nicene/Chalcedonian
The Tenth Council of Toledo assembled in December AD 656 during the reign of king Reccesvuint (653-672). It was presided by Eugenius II of Toledo. It was attended by nineteen other bishops, and five representatives of absent bishops.
G. Martínez Díez, F. Rodríguez eds., La colección canónica Hispana, Monumenta Hispaniae sacra. Serie canónica 5, Madrid 1992.
R. Collins, Visigothic Spain, 409-711, Oxford 2004.
J. Orlandis, D. Ramos-Lissón, Die Synoden auf der Iberischen Halbinsel bis zum Einbruch des Islam (711), Paderborn 1981.
J. Orlandis, "Abades y concilios en la Hispania visigotica", in Los Visigodos, historia y civilizacion. Actas de la Semana Internacional de Estudios Visigóticos (Madrid - Toledo - Alcala de Henares, 21-25 octubre de 1985), Antiguedad y Cristianismo. Monografias historicas sobre la antiguedad tardia III, Murcia 1986, 221-233


Travel and change of residence
Described by a title - Presbyter/πρεσβύτερος
Described by a title - Abba
Ecclesiastical administration - Participation in councils and ecclesiastical courts
Ecclesiastical administration - Ecclesiastical envoy
Relation with - Another presbyter
Relation with - Bishop/Monastic superior
Please quote this record referring to its author, database name, number, and, if possible, stable URL: M. Szada, Presbyters in the Late Antique West, ER810,