In the lists of subscriptions of the Eighth Council of Toledo there appear for the first time abbots who are acting on their own behalf (and not as the vicars of absent bishops). The abbots sign the decrees after the bishops present at the council and before the vicars. In the same place there are signatures of the representatives of the Toledan clergy (such as the archpresbyter and/or primicerius of Toledo). See Bishko 1941 and Orlandis 1986. Another group of "abbots" are those who appear as the representatives of absent bishops. Here there is one - Osdalgus - and as he comes from Dumio, thus from "monastic" bishopric, he actually may be a monk. But in other cases these "abbates" seem to belong to the diocesan clergy. See discussion in , , .