Presbyters Uniwersytet Warszawski
ER 962
Caelestius, disciple of Pelagius, claims before the Council of Carthage (North Africa) in 411 that Catholic presbyters, among them Rufinus, have taught that sin is not transmitted. Account of Augustine, bishop of Hippo, "The Grace of Christ and Original Sin", AD 418.
Book 2
3. [...] Et cum recitatum esset, Caelestius dixit: dixi de traduce peccati dubium me esse, ita tamen, ut cui donauit Deus gratiam peritiae consentiam, quia diuersa ab eis audiui, qui utique in ecclesia catholica constituti sunt presbyteri. Paulinus diaconus dixit: dic nobis nomina ipsorum. Caelestius dixit: sanctus presbyter Rufinus Romae qui mansit cum sancto Pammachio; ego audiui illum dicentem, quia tradux peccati non sit. Paulinus diaconus dixit: est aliquis alius? Caelestius dixit: audiui et plures dicere. Paulinus diaconus dixit: dic nomina ipsorum. Caelestius dixit: non tibi sufficit unus sacerdos? [...]
(ed. Urba- Zycha 1902: 168)
Book 2
3. [...] After it had been read out, Caelestius said, "I said that I was in doubt about the transmission of the sin, but that I would, nonetheless, agree with one to whom God has given the gift of knowledge, for I have heard differing views from those who have been established as the presbyters in the Catholic Church." The deacon Paulinus said, "Tell us their names." Caelestius said, "The holy presbyter, Rufinus, who lived at Rome with the saintly Pammachius. I heard him say that there is no transmission of sin". The deacon Paulinus said, "Is there anyone else?" Caelestius said, "I heard several others say this." The deacon Paulinus said, "State their names." Caelestius replied, "Is one priest not enough for you?"  [...]
(trans. R. Teske, slightly altered)


Caelestius, disciple of Pelagius, came to Carthage from Rome in 411 He wanted to be ordained presbyter there, but after interrogation by the council he was considered unsuitable because of his views on original sin.

Place of event:

  • Latin North Africa
  • Rome
  • Carthage
  • Rome

About the source:

Author: Augustine of Hippo
Title: The Grace of Christ and Original Sin, De gratia Christi et de peccato originali
Origin: Carthage (Latin North Africa)
Denomination: Catholic/Nicene/Chalcedonian
Augustine wrote this work in Carthage in Summer 418 to inform his friends in the East (Albina, Pinianus and Melania) about the development of the Pelagian controversy.
K. Urba, J. Zycha edd., Sancti Aureli Augustini De gratia Christi et de peccato originali, Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum 42, Prague-Vienna-Lepizig 1902, 125-206.
The Grace of Christ and Original Sin, in: Answer to the Pelagians, New York 1996, trans. R. Teske, 403-460.


Travel and change of residence
Described by a title - Presbyter/πρεσβύτερος
Described by a title - Sacerdos/ἱερεύς
Impediments or requisits for the office - Heresy/Schism
Relation with - Heretic/Schismatic
Education - Theological interest
Pastoral activity - Teaching
    Please quote this record referring to its author, database name, number, and, if possible, stable URL: S. Adamiak, Presbyters in the Late Antique West, ER962,