Presbyters Uniwersytet Warszawski
ER 364
Subscriptions of the archpresbyters Gaianus of Asturias and Hildimirus of Orense (both in the Iberian Peninsula) in the acts of the Third Council of Toledo (Iberian Peninsula, AD 589).
[66] Gaianus archipresbyter Emporitanae ecclesiae agens uicem domni mei Fructuosi episcopi subscripsi.
[68] Hildimirus archipresbyter Auriensis ecclesiae agens uicem domni mei Lopati episcopi subscripsi.
(eds. Martinez Diez, Rodriguez 1992: 147)
[66] I, Gaianus archpresbyter of the Church of Ampurias on behalf of my lord Bishop Fructuosus, have signed.
[68] I, Hildimirus archpresbyter of the Church in Orense on behalf of my lord Bishop Lopatus, have signed.
(trans. M. Szada)


Gaianus (or Galanus, his name is transmitted in manuscripts in different forms) is sometimes identified with the bishop of Ampurias who subscribed the acts of the Second Council of Saragossa in 592 and the Second Council of Barcelona in 599 (see PRVT 611). The bishop Lopatus and his archpresbyter Hildimirus are known only from these Toletan subscriptions (see PRVT 394).

Place of event:

  • Iberian Peninsula
  • Toledo
  • Orense
  • Ampurias

About the source:

Title: Third Council of Toledo (589), Concilium III Toletanum, III Concilium Toletanum a. 589
Origin: Toledo (Iberian Peninsula)
Denomination: Catholic/Nicene/Chalcedonian
The Third Council of Toledo in 589 is a pivotal event that changed the religious allegiance of the Visigothic kingdom. The ruling elites of the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse (418-507), and later in the Visigothic kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula adhered to the Arian (Homoian) Christianity, whereas the Roman population were dominantly Catholic (though the frontiers between the denominations were not impenetrable, as we know Goths who converted to the Nicene Christianity and Romans who were Homoian). In 587 King Reccared converted to Catholicism. This was followed by the decision to eliminate the religious division in the kingdom. The Third Council of Toledo in 589 assembled in May to confirm the conversion of all the Gothic leaders and Arian clergy to the Catholicism.
The literature on the conversion of the Visigoths and the Third Council in Toledo is voluminous - only a few seminal books and papers are signalised in the bibliography section below.
The acts of the third council of Toledo are transmitted in the 7th c. canonical collection from Spain, so-called Hispana. Its authorship has been atrributed to the Isidore of Seville (it is still accepted by Martinez Diez 1966; other scholars reject this attribution: Munier 1966; Gaudemet 1967: 122-124; Schaferdiek 1967: 144-148; Landau 1968: 406-418). This collection has several recensions: primitive one, so-called Isidoriana, lost today; Juliana recension edited after 681 and attributed to the Julian of Toledo, that adds to the previous recension the acts and canons of the councils from the fifth council of Toledo do the twelfth (in 681); Vulgata recension edited between 694-702 that adds the acts and canons of the councils from the the thirteenth council of Toledo up to the seventeenth held in 694, this recension was the most widespread during the Middle Ages (more bibliography see Kéry 1999: 61-67). The two recensions Iuliana and Vulgata give different titles to the canons of the third council of Toledo (Martinez Diez 1992: 17-20).
G. Martínez Díez, F. Rodríguez eds., La colección canónica Hispana, Monumenta Hispaniae sacra. Serie canónica 5, Madrid 1992.
J. Vives ed., Concilios visigóticos e hispano-romanos, Barcelona-Madrid 1963.
El Concilio III de Toledo. XIV Centenario, ed. R. Gonzalvez, Toledo 1991.
R. Collins, Visigothic Spain, 409-711, Oxford, OX, UK; Malden, MA, USA 2004.
J. Gaudemet, review of: "G. Martinez Diez, La coleccion canonica Hispana 1", Revue historique de droit français et étranger 4e ser.  45 (1967), 122-124.
J.N. Hillgarth, "La conversión de los Visigodos. Notas criticas", Analecta Sacra Tarraconensia 34/1 (1961), 21-46.
L. Kéry, Canonical collections of the early Middle Ages (ca. 400-1140): a bibliographical guide to the manuscripts and literature, Washington, D.C 1999.
M. Koch, Ethnische Identität im Entstehungsprozess des spanischen Westgotenreiches, Berlin; New York 2012.
P. Landau, review of: "G. Martinez Diez, La coleccion canonica Hispana 1", Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte Kanonistische Abteilung 54 (1968), 406-414.
G. Martínez Díez, La Colección canónica Hispana, vol. 1 Estudio, Madrid 1966.
C. Munier, "Saint Isidore de Séville est-il l’auteur de I’Hispana chronologique?", Sacris Erudiri 17 (1966), 230-241.
K. Schaferdiek, review of: "G. Martinez Diez, La coleccion canonica Hispana 1", Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 78 (1967), 144-148.
E.A. Thompson, "The Conversion of the Visigoths to Catholicism", Nottingham Medieval Studies 4 (1960), 4-35.


Further ecclesiastical career - Bishop
Functions within the Church - Archpresbyter
Specific number of presbyters from the same church
Ecclesiastical administration - Participation in councils and ecclesiastical courts
Relation with - Bishop/Monastic superior
Please quote this record referring to its author, database name, number, and, if possible, stable URL: M. Szada, Presbyters in the Late Antique West, ER364,