Presbyters Uniwersytet Warszawski
ER 2044
Presbyter Rufinus of Aquileia (Italy), ca 394-411, is listed among the writers who proposed divisions in the Psalter. Cassiodorus, "Institutions of Divine and Secular Learning", Ravenna, Vivarium, AD 530-560.
Book I
14.3. Hic textus multorum translatione variatus, sicut in prologo Psalterii positum est, patris Hieronymi diligenti cura emendatus compositusque relictus est, ubi nos omnia tria genera divisionum iudicavimus affigenda, ut inspecta dili­ genter atque tractata non impugnare sed invicem se potius exponere videantur, unde licet multi Patres, id est sanctus Hilarius, Pictaviensis urbis antistes, et Rufinus presbyter Aquileiensis et Epiphanius episcopus Cypri et synodus Nicaena (et) Calchedonensis non contraria dixerint sed diversa, omnes tamen per divisiones suas libros divinos sacra­ mentis competentibus aptaverunt, sicut et in evangelistarum concordia probatur effectum, ubi una quidem fides est rerum et ratio diversa sermonum.
(ed. Mynors 1961: 40)
Book I
14.3. This text is varied being translated by many people, as is stated in the prologue of the Psalter, and Jerome left it carefully emended and arranged; and I have judged that all three sets of divisions ought to be marked in this book, so that when they are carefully considered and treated they seem not to disagree but rather explain one another. As a result, although many Fathers – St Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, and Rufinus, a presbyter of Aquileia, and Epiphanius, bishop of Cyprus, and the Councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon – have said things not contradictory to one another but only different, all have, nevertheless, by their divisions, fitted the sacred books to the appropriate mysteries, as also happens in the harmonies of the Gospels where we regard the events with faith although they differ in the way they are told.
(trans. Halporn 2004: 137-38, lightly adapted)

Place of event:

  • Italy north of Rome with Corsica and Sardinia
  • Aquileia

About the source:

Author: Cassiodorus
Title: De institutione divinarum litterarum, Institutiones, An introduction to divine and human readings, Institutions of Divine and Secular Learning
Origin: Ravenna (Italy north of Rome with Corsica and Sardinia), Vivarium (Italy south of Rome and Sicily)
Denomination: Catholic/Nicene/Chalcedonian
"Institutions of Divine and Secular Learining" of Cassiodorus is a treatise about Christian education and a sort of catalogue of books (in many respects similar to the genre of the De viris illustribus). It is usually connected with the community of Vivarium and the scholarly and literary pursuits of its members. The work, however, was revised several times and therefore, it is probable that the earlier versions were drafted by Cassiodorus already in the 530s when he was still at office in Ravenna, at the court of the Ostrogothic king. Mommsen (1894: ix) supposed that Cassiodorus borrowed the title from Junilius, the author of Instituta composed in 542 whose works Cassiodorus certainly knew (I.10.1). Moreover, Cassiodorus mentions Pope Vigilius as if he was already dead, therefore after 555. The composition and revision of the Institutions most probably took several decades, and possibly extended even past the 560s. It cannot be, however, more precisely defined (see Cappuyns 1949: 1371-73, Vessey 2004: 22-24).
R.A.B. Mynors ed., Cassiodori Senatoris Institutiones, Oxford 1961
J.W. Halporn, trans., Cassiodorus: Institutions of divine and secular learning and On the soul, Liverpool 2004.
M. Cappuyns, "Cassiodore", Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. 11, Paris 1949, cols. 1349-1408
Th. Mommsen ed., Cassiodori Senatoris Variae, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Auctores antiquissimi 12, Berlin 1894
S. Ruiz, "Bellator", Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. 7, Paris 1934, col. 828
M. Vessey, "Introduction", in: Cassiodorus: Institutions of divine and secular learning and On the soul, Liverpool 2004, 3-101


Described by a title - Presbyter/πρεσβύτερος
Reverenced by
Writing activity
Described by a title - Pater
Education - Theological interest
Devotion - Reading the Bible and devotional literature
Please quote this record referring to its author, database name, number, and, if possible, stable URL: M. Szada, Presbyters in the Late Antique West, ER2044,