Presbyters Uniwersytet Warszawski
ER 1689
Pope Leo the Great writes to the Council of Ephesus (Asia Minor), affirms the authority of the see of Peter to decide upon the dogmatical issues and informs the bishops that he has sent his envoys, among them the Presbyter Renatus, to act as his representatives at the council. Letter 33 of Pope Leo the Great "Religiosa clementissimi", written in Rome, AD 449.
Letter 33
Leo commends Emperor Theodosius for appealing to the see of Rome in the case of doctrinal dissension caused by Eutyches. He explains that the authority of Rome is based upon the blessing given by Jesus Christ to St Peter according to the Gospel (cf. Matth 16: 13-20).
2. Verum quia etiam talium non est negligenda curatio, et pie ac religiosae Christianissimus imperator haberi voluit episcopale concilium, ut pleniore judicio omnis possit error aboleri, fratres nostros Julium episcopum, Renatum presbyterum, et filium meum Hilarum diaconem, cumque his Dulcitium notarium probatae nobis fidei, misi; qui vice mea sancto conventui vestrae fraternitatis intersint, et communi vobiscum sententia, quae Domino sint placitura, constituant. Hoc est, ut primitus pestifero errore damnato, etiam de ipsius, qui imprudenter erravit, restitutione tractetur; si tamen doctrinam veritatis amplectens, sensus haereticos, quibus imperitia ejus fuerat irretita, plene aperteque propria voce et subscriptione damnaverit: quod etiam in libello quem ad nos miserat est professus, spondens per omnia nostram se secuturum esse sententiam. Acceptis autem fratris et coepiscopi nostri Flaviani litteris, plenius ad eum de his quae as nos videtur retulisse rescripsimus: ut abolito hoc qui natus videbatur errore, in laudem et gloriam Dei per totum mundum una sit fides et una eademque confessio, et "in nomine Jesu omne genu flectatur coelestium, terrestrium et infernorum, et omnis lingua confiteatur quia Dominus Jesus Christus in gloria est Dei Patris". Data idibus Junii, Asturio et Protogene viris clarissimis consulibus.
Greek version:
2. Ἀλλ᾽ ἐπειδή περ, ἀδελφοὶ τιμιώτατοι, καὶ τῆς τῶν τοιούτων θεραπείας οὐκ ἔστι παραμελεῖν, καὶ ὁ εὐσεβὴς δὲ, καὶ φιλόχριστος βασιλεύς, εὐσεβῶς ἅμα, καὶ εὐλαβῶς ἔχων, τὴν τῶν ἐπισκόπων ἀθροισθῆναι σύνοδον ἠβουλήθη, ὥστε κρίσει τελειωτέρᾳ δυνηθῆναι πᾶσαν ἀπαλείφεσθαι πλάνην, τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ἡμῶν Ἰούλιον τὸν ἐπίσκοπον, καὶ Ῥενάτον τὸν πρεσβύτερον, καὶ τὸ τέκνον μου Ἱλάρον τὸν διάκονον, καὶ μετὰ τούτων Δουλκίτιον τὸν ἑμὸν νοτάριον, δοκιμασθείσης ἡμῖν τῆς αὐτῶν πίστεως, ἀπεστείλαμεν. Οἵ τινες εἰς τάξιν ἑμὴν τῇ ἁγίᾳ τῆς ὑμῶν ἀδελφότητος συνόδῳ παρέσονται· καὶ τὰ τῇ κοινῇ μεθ᾽ὑμῶν γνώμῃ τὰ κατὰ Θεὸν ἀρέσκοντα ψηφιοῦνται· Τουτέστιν, ὥστε ἐν πρώτοις τῆς φθοροποιοῦ πλάνος αὐτοῦ πλάνος αὐτοῦ καταδικασθείσης, καὶ οὕτως περὶ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ ἀμαθοῦς πλάνης ἀποκαταστάσεως σκοπηθῆναι· εἴγε ὅλως τὴν τῆς ἀληθείας διδασκαλίαν δεχόμενος, τὸ αἱρετικὸν φρόνημα· ὅπερ ἡ κακοδοξία αὐτοῦ πέφηνει ἐμπλακεῖσα, εἰς πλῆρες, καὶ σαφῶς οἰκείᾳ φωνῇ, καὶ ὑπογραφῇ, καταδικάζειν ἀνέχοιτο. Ὅπερ καὶ ἐν τῷ λιβέλλῳ, ὅνπερ πρὸς ἡμᾶς ἀπέστειλε, ποιεῖν ἧν ὑποσχόμενος· διὰ πάντων ἐπαγγελλόμενος, ταῖς ἡμετέραις ἀκολουθεῖν ἀποφάσεσι· δεξάμενος δὲ τὰ γράμματα τοῦ ἐπισκόπου, καὶ συναδελφοῦ ἡμῶν Φλαυιανοῦ, τελεώτερον πρὸς αὐτὸν περὶ τούτων, ἅπερ ἔδοξεν ἐφ᾽ἡμᾶς ἀναφέρειν, ἀντεγράψαμεν· ἕνα τῆς πλάνης ἀπαλειφομένης τῆς νῦν ἀναφυείσης, εἰς ὕμνον, καὶ δόξαν τοῦ Θεοῦ μία πίστις εἴη κατὰ τὸν πάντα κόσμον, καὶ μία, καὶ ἡ αὐτὴ ὁμολογία· καὶ ἵνα ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ πᾶν γόνυ κάμψῃ, ἐπουρανίων, καὶ ἐπιγείων, καὶ καταχθονίων· καὶ πᾶσα γλῶσσα ἐξομολογήσηται, ὅτι Κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς εἰς δόξαν Θεοῦ Πατρός. Ἀμήν.
(Patrologia Latina 54, 797-800 = Ballerini 1753: 863-868)
Letter 33
Leo commends Emperor Theodosius for appealing to the see of Rome in the case of doctrinal dissension caused by Eutyches. He explains that the authority of Rome is based upon the blessing given by Jesus Christ to St Peter according to the Gospel (cf. Matth 16: 13-20).
2. But because the healing even of such men must not be neglected, and the most Christian Emperor has piously and devoutly desired a council of bishops to be held, that all error may be destroyed by a fuller judgment, I have sent our brothers Julius the bishop, Renatus the presbyter, and my son Hilary the deacon, and with them Dulcitius the notary, whose faith we have proved, to be present in my stead at your holy assembly, brethren, and settle in common with you what is in accordance with the Lord's will.  To wit, that the pestilential error may be first condemned, and then the restitution of him, who has so unwisely erred, discussed, but only if embracing the true doctrine he fully and openly with his own voice and signature condemns those heretical opinions in which his ignorance has been ensnared: for this he has promised in the appeal which he sent to us, pledging himself to follow our judgment in all things.  On receiving our brother and fellow-bishop Flavian's letter, we have replied to him at some length on the points which he seems to have referred to us: that when this error which seems to have arisen, has been destroyed, there may be one Faith and one and the same confession throughout the whole world to the praise and glory of God, and that "in the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things on earth, and things under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that the Lord Jesus Christ is in the glory of God the Father" [Phil 2:10].  Dated on the Ides of June in the consulship of the illustrious Asturius and Protogenes [= 13 June AD 449].
(trans. Ch. Lett Feltoe 1895: 47; slightly adapted)


Presbyter Renatus never arrived to Ephesus because he died during the travel on the isle of Delos, see [1565].

Place of event:

  • Rome
  • East
  • Rome
  • Constantinople

About the source:

Author: Leo the Great
Title: Letters, Epistulae
Origin: Rome (Rome)
Denomination: Catholic/Nicene/Chalcedonian
Leo the Great was the bishop of Rome from AD 440 to his death in AD 461. We have the collection of 173 letters of Leo.
Eutyches was a presbyter and an archimandrite in Constantinople who got involved in the theological discussions against Nestorius and was inclined toward the monophysite Christology. These views were considered heretical by Bishop Flavian of Constantinople and Eutyches was excommunicated by the so-called Home Synod in AD 448 (σύνοδος ἐνδημοῦσα, the synod of the bishops who happened to be in the capital). Eutyches sent in protest the letters to the bishops all over the world, from which the letter to Pope Leo is still extant. Eutyches also tried to obtain the support of Emperor Theodosius. In fact, the emperor eventually agreed on organizing the Council which was supposed to condemn Bishop Flavian and his supporters. Leo was warned of the preparations by Bishop Flavian and in June AD 449 he sent his legacy consisting of Bishop Julius of Puteoli, the Presbyter Renatus, and the Deacon Hilary. He entrusted to the envoys the dogmatical letter on Christ, the Tomus ad Flavianum. Although Leo tried to prevent through the letters the gathering, the council met in Ephesus on 8 August 449. The legates from Rome tried to read out the Tome at the council but were successfully hindered by Dioscorus of Alexandria and Eutyches (see Grillmeier 1975: 523-528).
There was a long scholarly discussion about the possible participation of Prosper of Aquitaine in the composition of the Tome of Leo, see Green 2008: 193-201.
P. and G. Ballerini eds., Sancti Leoni Magni Romani pontificis opera, vol. 1, Venice 1753
Patrologia Latina, vol. 54
B. Green, The soteriology of Leo the Great, Oxford; New York 2008.
A. Grillmeier, Christ in Christian tradition, v. 1, Atlanta 1975.


Travel and change of residence
Described by a title - Presbyter/πρεσβύτερος
Ecclesiastical administration - Participation in councils and ecclesiastical courts
Ecclesiastical administration - Ecclesiastical envoy
Relation with - Bishop/Monastic superior
Please quote this record referring to its author, database name, number, and, if possible, stable URL: M. Szada, Presbyters in the Late Antique West, ER1689,